Get American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the PDF

By Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes

ISBN-10: 1402087926

ISBN-13: 9781402087929

ISBN-10: 1402087934

ISBN-13: 9781402087936

The amount comprises summaries of proof, theories, and unsolved difficulties touching on the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of normally huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the US and approximately 1,000 years later in South the USA. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of people has ended in the recommendation that foraging people are in charge, even if significant climatic shifts have been additionally occurring within the Americas in the course of a number of the extinctions. The final released quantity with related (but no longer exact) topics -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; given that then loads of leading edge, interesting new examine has been performed yet has no longer but been compiled and summarized. varied chapters during this quantity supply in-depth resum?s of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the United States, the potential insights into animal ecology supplied via stories of good isotopes and anatomical/physiological features reminiscent of progress increments in gigantic and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic learn approximately large-mammal biology, the functions of courting tips on how to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies bearing on human searching of huge mammals.

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Additional resources for American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology)

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In these sites, steady deposition of dung through millennia by Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotheriops shastensis) stops abruptly at 11,000–10,800 BP. Relatively precise terminal dates on dung include: Gypsum Cave, NV, 11,005 ± 100, 11,080 ± 90 BP (Hofreiter et al. 2000); Rampart Cave, AZ, 10,940 ± 60, 11,000 ± 140 BP; Muav Caves, AZ, 11,140 ± 160, 11,060 ± 240, 10,650 ± 220 BP; Aden Crater, NM, 11,080 ± 200 BP; Upper Sloth Caves, TX, 10,750 ± 140, 10,780 ± 140, and 11,060 ± 180 BP (Long and Martin, 1974; Martin, 2005).

The appearance of fluted or pseudo-fluted fishtail (Fell I) points in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego about 11,000–10,700 BP (Flegenheimer and Zarate, 1997) signals the arrival of Clovis-descended Paleoindians around 12,900 cal bp. The earliest of the most precise (1-sigma < 100), internally consistent radiocarbon dates from good stratigraphic contexts for Fell I assemblages in southernmost South America (Miotti and Salemme, 2003) are: Piedra Museo Tres Arroyos Cerro Tres Tetas Cueva Casa del Minero 11,000 ± 65 (AA-27950) 10,925 ± 65 (OxA 8528) 11,085 ± 70 (OxA 9248) 10,915 ± 65 (AA-22233) 10,999 ± 55 (AA-37207) 10,967 ± 55 (AA-37208) 31 At first glance, these dates are as early as the best-dated Clovis sites in North America (ca.

2005), where gradual warming began about 18,000 cal bp. , 2002); it ended as the Younger Dryas began. But the South American megafauna did not die out until about 12,500–12,000 cal bp (500 years after Paleoindian hunters arrived). They may have lingered until ca. 10,500 cal bp or even later in parts of Brazil (where the absence of fishtail points may indicate humans arrived after ca. 12,500 cal bp), Uruguay, and Argentina. Late dates from Brazil include: 9,580 ± 200 BP on charcoal associated with the sloth, Catonyx cuvieri, at Lapa Vermelha IV; another date on bone for C.

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American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology) by Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes

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