Read e-book online American Environmental History: An Introduction PDF
By Carolyn Merchant
Via learning the numerous methods various peoples have replaced, formed, and conserved the flora and fauna over the years, environmental historians offer perception into humanity's distinctive dating with nature and, extra importantly, are higher capable of comprehend the origins of our present environmental difficulty. starting with the precolonial land-use perform of local americans and concluding with our twenty-first century matters over our international ecological predicament, American Environmental background addresses contentious concerns equivalent to the protection of the wasteland, the expulsion of local peoples from nationwide parks, and inhabitants progress, and considers the formative forces of gender, race, and sophistication. Entries handle various subject matters, from the effect of rice cultivation, slavery, and the expansion of the car suburb to the results of the Russian sea otter alternate, Columbia River salmon fisheries, the environmental justice stream, and globalization. This illustrated reference is an important spouse for college students drawn to the continued transformation of the yankee panorama and the conflicts over its assets and conservation. It makes wealthy use of the instruments and assets (climatic and geological info, courtroom files, archaeological digs, and the writings of naturalists) that environmental historians depend upon to behavior their examine. the quantity additionally features a compendium of important humans, thoughts, occasions, organisations, and laws, and an in depth bibliography of serious motion pictures, books, and sites.
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Additional info for American Environmental History: An Introduction
For Bakunin, there could be only one logical conclusion to Marx’s scientiﬁc socialism – the supplanting of one form of oppression by another. While Bakunin adopted, and adapted, Marx’s economic materialism he developed Marx’s class analysis considerably, locating revolutionary potential beyond the working class to the peasants and even the ‘dreaded’ lumpenproletariat. By promoting the spontaneous uprising of all comers in their clamouring for freedom and autonomy, Bakunin left little room for Marx’s scientiﬁc socialism, and for the socialist state’s paternalistic role (see Malatesta 1974).
In expanding the domination discourse beyond the Marxist one, the New Left named instrumental rationality as one of capitalism’s key tools of domination. Essentialism and instrumentalism began to be very directly linked to the domination of both people and nature. Much anarchism felt vindicated by such analyses. Others, such as Murray Bookchin, saw in the theorization of postmodernism and poststructuralism, empty obfuscatory rhetoric designed to mask rather than illuminate domination. Nonetheless, the resonance between anarchist and, for example, Foucauldian analyses illustrates well the contributions of postmodernism and poststructuralism to the broader discourse of domination.
Stirner’s greatest insight was to identify in the humanist abstraction of ‘Man’ a replacement for the abstraction of ‘God’. Through creating a human essence when in fact there was none, both God and Man denied the individual their uniqueness and integrity. Accordingly, when the state demands ‘that I be a man … it imposes being a man upon me as a duty’; to not assume the mantle of such ‘manhood’ is to invite punishment and estrangement, so that the ‘fear of man has taken the place of the old fear of God’ (Stirner 1995, 161, 165).
American Environmental History: An Introduction by Carolyn Merchant