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Emotion (or impact) is a cross-disciplinary topic in psychology. Psychology Library variants: Emotion (12 quantity set) brings jointly as one set, or person volumes, a sequence of formerly out-of-print titles, released among 1976 and 1999. Written via various authors from various backgrounds and spanning various parts of psychology, corresponding to medical, cognitive, developmental and social, the set covers a variety of methods together with learn on young children and children. an excellent chance to achieve a wealth of data and history in an enormous box of psychology.
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Extra info for Altruistic Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior (PLE Emotion)
As was noted by Hoffman (1976, 1982a) and observed by Radke-Yarrow and Zahn-Waxler (Radke-Yarrow & Zahn-Waxler, 1984; Zahn-Waxler & Radke-Yarrow, 1982), very young children often have difficulty even pinpointing the source of their distress, much less analyzing factors that might increase or alleviate their arousal. Thus, their helping behaviors may tend to be less cognitively controlled than those of adults in noncrisis situations (adults' reactions mayaiso be reflexive in crises; Piliavin et al.
As for sympathy, there is not necessarily an exact match between the emotion of the ob server and the other. However, unlike sympathy, the response is self-oriented rather than other-oriented. " Empathy (as defined above) is a relatively noncognitive response, one that might occur in very young children who do not clearly differentiate between one's own distress and that of another. Moreover, children and aduIts may initially respond to emotion-eliciting events involving others with an empathic response which, via cognitive processing, becomes either personal distress (if the focus is on the self) or sympathy (if the focus is upon another).
According to Hoffman, as the child acquires person permanence near the end of the first year of life, the child gradually learns to differentiate between another' s and one's own distress. However, because young children cannot cIearly differentiate between their own internal states and those of others, they often confuse the two. Consequently, children's helping behaviors are "egocentric," that is, children attempt to alleviate the other's distress with actions that are Iikely to diminish their own distress.
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