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By M. Riad El-Ghonemy
Affluence and Poverty within the heart East is an advent to the political economic climate of the center East, targeting its such a lot salient gains - continual poverty and severe inequality. El-Ghonemy analyses the criteria influencing the zone, together with its distinct old, spiritual and cultural combine, in addition to its monetary foundations and different types of corruption. for every issue he employs case-studies drawn from during the sector, from Turkey to Sudan and Morocco to Iran. within the ultimate part El-Ghomeny discusses attainable suggestions to the demanding situations dealing with the quarter, together with attainable makes use of of a peace dividend, and the position of democracy.
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Extra info for Affluence and Poverty in the Middle East
To continue as a poor tenant is the choice of a lesser evil. There are several factors beyond the control of the disadvantaged sections of the population which inhibit the achievement of equality of opportunity. They include initial poor endowment (for instance, non-existent inheritance of material wealth), and discrimination in education according to race, sex, family background and income class (Chapters 2 and 8). These constraints also include stopping the education of bright children so that they can support their poor parents through child labour, and geographical location (living in backward, remote areas with no basic social services, for example).
It appears that fairness and justice are synonyms, and that one of the meanings of exploitation is unfairness and utilization of opportunities for one’s own advantage (Le Grand, 1991: 8). But in John Rawls’s contractual theory of justice (1972), injustice and inequalities would be justified only if they benefited the least advantaged members of society. A brief clarification of the meaning of exploitation, as viewed in economics and in Islamic principles (as an example of the power of morality contained in other religions, too) may help the reader to understand the arguments presented in the rest of the book.
Yields of wheat and barley fell from an average 500 and 670 kilogrammes per hectare in the preceding years to 170 and 120 kilogrammes, respectively. The distressed fellaheen and nomads sold their lands and livestock to merchants at very low prices and fled to the cities. 7 This discussion of the historical origins of unjust distribution of wealth should not be interpreted to mean that the colonial powers did only damaging things. On balance, they modernized the pre-capitalist economies, and linked the economies to the world market.
Affluence and Poverty in the Middle East by M. Riad El-Ghonemy